:: Volume 4, Issue 1 (Int Biol Biomed J 2018) ::
IBBJ 2018, 4(1): 1-13 Back to browse issues page
The Relationship between Glutamate and Multiple Sclerosis
Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi 1, Hooman Zarei 2, Ali Malekzadeh Shafaroudi 3, Narges Karimi 1, Mahmoud Abedini * 4
1- Immunogenetic Research Center, Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
2- Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
3- Faculty of Dentistry, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
4- Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. , Mahmoudabedini@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1793 Views)
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system which is involved in synaptic transmission, brain development, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Normally, the enzymatic destruction of glutamate does not occur in the synaptic and extracellular space, but glutamate is removed through specific transporter proteins, leading to stabilization of glutamate concentration at non-toxic levels. When extracellular glutamate concentration increases, it could cause excitotoxicity and lead to many diseases of the central nervous system such as neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS). Trans-glutaminase enzymes produce large quantities of glutamate by deaminating glutamine and consequently activating immune cells, especially lymphocytes. These activated lymphocytes release glutamate abundantly in the lesion location. Also, the expression level of glutamate specific carriers is decreased in the lesion area. This review discusses on the synthesis and release of glutamate, the natural cycle of glutamine/glutamate and glutamate receptors and transporters, and their role in excitotoxicity and finally their relationship with MS.
Keywords: Glutamate, multiple sclerosis, excitotoxicity, central nervous system
Full-Text [PDF 411 kb]   (981 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Clinical Biochemistry
Received: 2017/08/25 | Accepted: 2017/09/28 | Published: 2017/10/29


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Volume 4, Issue 1 (Int Biol Biomed J 2018) Back to browse issues page